Analog Electronics - Beginners Hardware Engineering

Analog Electronics - Beginners Hardware Engineering

Welcome to Analog Electronics - Beginners Hardware Engineering!

Analog electronics is fundamental to the field of electronic engineering, without it we wouldn't have any digital devices as we know them today.

Through taking this course you will be able to intuitively analyze and design real-world complicated practical circuits such as the one shown below!

741 Op-Amp Internals Credit: Daniel Braun - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/legalcode

What you will learn from this course level:

  • Intuitive understanding of electrons, current, voltage, resistance, and power
  • Series, Parallel, Series-Parallel circuit topologies as well as any generalised circuit topology
  • Systematic analysis of circuits via Kirchoff's Voltage Law, Kirchoff's Current Law, Thevenin's Theorem, Norton's Theorem, Branch Current Analysis, Mesh Current Analysis, Nodal Analysis, and Superposition as well as a handful of others
  • Introduction to transient circuits which feature resistors, capacitors, and inductors connected in all configurations
  • AC circuit analysis for circuits containing resistors, capacitors, and inductors
  • How to simulate circuits
Atoms
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Conductors and Insulators
Conductors:A conductor is a material which enables electrons to flow freely between atoms. Most metals are regarded as conductors which have valence electrons in the outer shell that are free which repel each other. Once an electric field is applied to copper the free electrons propagate through the…
Electric Potential and Voltage
We have learnt that charges experience a force when placed in an electric field and we can say that this electric force performs work to move the charge between two points. Electric potential is the work required to move a charge from a reference point to a specified point. Expressed
Electric Current
To put it simply, electric current is the flow of charge. It is defined as the total charge which pass a point in the circuit each second and has the units of Amperes [A] or Coulombs per second [C/s] by definition. Where I is the current in Amperes, Q
Resistivity, Conductivity, Resistance and Conductance
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Ohm’s Law
Ohm’s Law is a fundamental and basic law of electronics which describes the relationship between voltage, current and resistance. Before we jump into the Law, let’s pay our respects to Georg Ohm. Who was Georg Ohm?Georg Simon OhmGeorg Simon Ohm was born on 16 March 1789 in Erlangen Germany,
Ideal Voltage Source
An Ideal Voltage Source has several properties which allow the voltage source to always provide the rated voltage independent of the circuit resistance and current drawn. These properties are: Never goes flatAlways maintains the same voltage independent of currentVoltage sources can Supply or Absorb…
Ideal Current Source
An Ideal Current Source has several properties which allow the current source to always deliver the rated current to the circuit independent of the circuit resistance and voltage across its terminals. These properties are: Has the same current flowing through it regardless of the voltage across its…
Circuit Simulation with LTSpice
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Series Circuits
Series Circuits are circuits which satisfy the following rules: The same current flows through each element, the current doesn’t branch offThey have one common terminal which is not connected to another current carrying componentThe key concept is that the current is the same through series componen…
Parallel Circuits
Parallel Circuits are circuits which satisfy the following rules: The same voltage exists across each branch, the current branches offTwo elements, paths, branches or networks are in parallel if they have two common terminalsA parallel circuit has two or more branches for current to flow through and…
Grounding and Safety
Ground:When voltage is spoken of it is always with reference to the electric potential at a reference point. In electronics ground (or earth) is a name we give to this reference point, and for a circuit with a battery for example this point is usually taken to be the
Series-Parallel Circuits
Series-Parallel Circuits are circuits which are composed of series and parallel connections. To analyse these we need to identify the series and parallel pieces and apply their rules to them. Below are summaries of the key rules for series and parallel circuits which will help us to identify and sim…
Circuit Terminology
This topic will describe commonly encountered circuit terminology. CircuitA circuit is a group of components connected together in a loop. At a minimum it will feature a voltage or current source and a resistance. Note if a voltage or current source is connected only by wires then a resistance still
Kirchoff’s Voltage Law
Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) is a circuit law related to voltages in a closed loop. It states that the the sum of voltages traversed in a closed loop is equal to zero. This is also known as the conservation of energy. This is mathematically described as: Expressed another way, the
Kirchoff’s Current Law
Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL) is a circuit law related to currents entering and exiting a junction. It states that the the total current entering a junction is equal to the total current exiting the junction. This is a consequence of the conservation of charge where charge can neither be created
Voltage and Current Divider Rules
Voltage Divider Rule:The Voltage Divider Rule is a formula we can apply to determine the voltage dropped across a resistor in a series circuit containing multiple resistances. Note that this rule will apply to any series sections of a circuit or equivalent series circuits which really helps us to
Practical Sources
Practical Sources emulate sources we encounter in the real world, they consist of an ideal source connected to an equivalent resistance representing the internal resistance of the source. They are also unable to provide the exact rated voltage or current to the load due to this internal resistance.…
Power
Voltage and current are fundamental concepts in electronics and power is another important concept. Power is the rate of energy production or absorbtion within a circuit. In physics it is defined as the rate of work performed per second [J/s]. In electronics it is the rate at which electrical
Source Conversions
Source Conversions allow us to convert between: a) Voltage source in series with a resistor and b) Current source in parallel with a resistor Which can be used to simplify circuit analysis. With source conversions we can redraw a circuit to ease analysis, for example if all elements are in
Wheatstone Bridge
The Wheatstone Bridge is a useful circuit which can be used to measure an unknown resistance and is connected in a bridge topology. It consists of three known resistances, an unknown resistance, a voltage source and a galvonometer (a device which detects current with high precision, in particular wh…
Potentiometers
Potentiometers (also referred to by pots) are three-terminal resistors which function as an adjustable voltage divider. The most common application of potentiometers is volume control. Internally it consists of two resistors in series and the third terminal is a mechanically adjustable wiper which d…
Branch Current Analysis
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Nodal Analysis
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Mesh Current Analysis
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Thévenin’s Theorem
Léon Charles Thévenin, born in Meaux France, was very interested in solving the problems of measurement in electrical circuits. He deeply studied KCL, KVL and Ohm’s Law eventually developing the famous Thévenin’s Theorem which elegantly states that “any linear circuit can be represented by a single…
Norton’s Theorem
Norton’s Theorem states that any linear circuit can be represented by a single current source, In, in parallel with resistance Rn. This is remarkably similar to Thévenin’s theorem, the only difference is that we convert a complex network into a current source in parallel with a resistor instead of a
Superposition
Superposition Theorem states that the total effect of all sources on a circuit containing linear elements is equal to the algebraic sum of each sources contribution. Put simply, we can say that the total effect (voltage or current) is equal to the effect of each source in isolation (all other
Millman’s Theorem
Millman’s Theorem is a theorem which can be used to simplify circuits consisting of multiple sources connected in parallel branches. It allows us to calculate the voltage across all branches in terms of the voltage sources and resistances. The node voltage A shown in the circuit structure shown belo…
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
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Dependent Sources
Dependent Sources are sources for which the output value depends on a voltage or current in the circuit. Many electronic devices behave this way where the output is dependent on voltages or currents in the circuit. A diamond symbol is used to represent a dependence source: The circuit shown below
Thermistors
Thermistors are resistors for which the resistance greatly depends on temperature. Recall that temperature also changes the resistance of ordinary resistors. The circuit symbol for a thermistor is as shown below: There are two types of thermistors - one where the resistance increases with temperatur…
Transient Response
A transient response represents the circuit behaviour once switched on or off. Once a circuit is powered on electromagnetic waves will traverse through the circuit causing the electrons to move through the circuit with voltages and currents ramping up throughout the circuit before reaching a steady-…
Capacitors
Capacitors are electronic components which absorb and release electrical energy, they operate very differently to resistors which simply dissipate energy. They are a fundamental building block for the vast majority of electronic circuits with many applications, almost any electronic device you take…
RC Circuits
Following on from our discussions of capacitance we come to RC Circuits aka Resistor-Capacitor circuits which are circuits which consist of resistors, capacitors and a power source. This will be our first practical example of a transient circuit where we will see the output voltage ramp up in time u…
Inductors
Inductors are electronic components which store energy in a magnetic field as electric current flows through it. Physically, inductors are insulated wire wound into a coil around an insulated core. From physics we know that currents generate magnetic fields around them in a direction as determined b…
RL Circuits
Following on from our discussions of inductors we come to RL Circuits aka Resistor-Inductor circuits which are circuits that consist of resistors, inductors and a power source. This will be our second practical example of a transient circuit where we will see the output current ramp up in time until
Series RLC Circuits
It is now time to see what happens when we have resistors, capacitors and inductors in a circuit! These are known as RLC circuits or second order circuits as we now have two types of energy storage components in the circuit. In this section we will take a look at
Parallel RLC Circuits
In this section we will take a look at an RLC circuit connected in parallel. Let’s dive straight into a real example and once again take a look at the voltage across the capacitor. Note that I’ve included a small 0.1m ohm resistor in the circuit to more closely
Here comes AC to rattle the cage
Until now we have been discussing what is known as Direct Current, DC, circuits where the current travels in only one direction. The perfect example of a DC source is a battery where a chemical reaction takes place resulting in an electric field and voltage which forces charges to continuously
Reactance Impedance and Phasors
Welcome to the Frequency DomainSo we now have a way to express AC waveforms in the time domain (provide a time t and we can compute the value) which is great, however in AC circuits what we are particularly interested in is how a circuit responds to different frequencies. With
What is Reactive Power?
Reactive Power is how we describe the power contained within energy storage elements which are capacitors and inductors. This differs to the power dissipated by resistors which is converted into heat whereas a capacitor stores energy in an electric field and inductor stores energy in a magnetic fiel…
AC Circuit Analysis
The good news is that every technique we have learnt to date for DC circuit analysis carries over to AC circuit analysis, all we have to do is simply treat resistance as impedance and voltage as a phasor and recall the reactance formulas for capacitors and inductors, that’s it! And
Introducing Filters
It has now come time to introduce filter circuits! Filters are a fundamental building block which alter the frequency response (amplitude vs frequency) of an electronic system to achieve a desired response such as a low pass filter which passes through low frequencies while filtering out high freque…
Poles and Zeroes
Poles and Zeroes, what could they be? I’ll give you a left of field hint, poles are related to the poles which hold up circus tents. Okay, from a less abstract frame of reference they are very useful metrics when it comes to describing an electronic system in the frequency
RLC Circuits and Resonance
You’ve made it to the final topic of the beginner’s course, well done! Let’s bring this to closure by discussing the very interesting RLC circuits which occur EVERYWHERE in practical designs on circuit boards and the concept of resonance which will serve you incredibly well out in the real world!